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  Land Of Russian Cossacks

Land Of Russian Cossacks 

General information Major sights

Major sights

Rostov-on-Don is one of the most important cities in the south of Russia, located on the river Don 46 km before it flows into the Azov Sea. Founded in 1749 Rostov now is the industrial, scientific and cultural center, located on the crossroad of the North Caucasus, Central Russia and the Ukraine. Rostov-on-Don is the capital of the Don Cossack region and is usually called “The Gates of the Caucasus”. Its prominent history and folklore attracts tourists from all over the world. The Rostov region is the native land of the famous Russian authors Anton Chekhov and Mikhail Sholokhov, the Winner of the Noble Prize for Literature.

Volgograd was formerly called Tsaritsyn (1589–1925) and Stalingrad (1925–1961). It is an important industrial and administrative center of Volgograd region, situated on the western bank of the Volga River. The city became famous after the Stalingrad battle — turning point of WW-2. The symbol of this battle is the statue  “Motherland Calls” which is the highest sculpture in the world, which is entered in the Guinness Book of Records. The history of the city is also closely related with Cossacks. It was captured twice by Cossacks of Stepan Razin in the rebellion of 1670 and by Cossacks of Emelyan Pugachev in 1774. Volgograd unites the beauties of the Cossack region, of the Volga and the Don rivers. There is a State Ensemble of the Don Cossacks in Volgograd, demonstrating its art in a traditional Cossack setting.

Stavropol was founded in 1777 during the Russo-Turkish War as a military encampment and designated as a city in 1785. Don Cossacks settled the area in and around the cities of Stavropol and Georgievsk with a mission to defend borders of the Russian Empire.
Kuban cossack monument in Krasnodar.
The name “Stavropol” is a Russian rendition of a Greek name Stauropolis, meaning "The city of the Cross". According to a legend soldiers found a huge cross made out of stone when they were building the fortress in the future city location.

It was founded in 1794 as Ekaterinodar. The original name meant “Catherine's Gift” simultaneously in recognition of Empress Catherine the Great’s grant of land in the Kuban region to the Kuban Cossacks. In Soviet time Ekaterinodar was renamed to Krasnodar.

The origin of the city starts with a fortress built by Cossacks in order to defend imperial borders and claim Russian ownership over Cherkessia, which was contested by Turkey. In the first half of the 19th century Ekaterinodar grew into a busy center of the Kuban Kossacks.

Novocherkassk is a city in Rostov region, former capital of the Don Cossacks. There are monuments to Matvey Platov (a Russian general who commanded the Don Cossacks in the Napoleonic Wars) and Ermak (the Cossack leader and explorer of Siberia), and the palace of the ataman (elected headman) of the Cossacks. During the bicentenary celebrations in September 2005 another monument, dedicated to the reconciliation of White and Red Cossacks, was opened in the presence of the members of the Romanov family.

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